if-clause and wish clause

Type if-clause

Form Type I.

if-clause  + main clause
If / Unless / If …….not  + future I
+ present tense  + shall / will / can / may / might + verb 
If I learn my vocabulary,    I’ll get a good mark
or the other way round: 
main clause + if-clause
shall / will / can / may / might + verb   + present tense     simple present
I’ll get a good mark.    if I learn my vocabulary
Function open condition:Probable action/result in the future according to a real condition
You’ll catch the train if you leave before ten.
Curriculum Lehrplan:

  • Type I and II in form 7 and 8
  • if vs. when

Lehrbuch:

  • previously done:
  • future I 
  • present tense
Difficulties 1. form:

  • if – plays, – main clause -future I
  • if – unless

2. function

  • open conditions
  • What’s condition – what’s consequence?

3. interlingual interferences

  • No future tense in if-clauses
  • if vs. when
  • unless

4. other difficulties

  • position of the if-clause
Situations
  • operating instructions
  • making appointments
  • warnings or possible rewards
  • suggestions

Type II

Form 

Type II: 
if-clause
+ main clause
If / Unless / If …….not past tense,   + conditional I:+ should / would / could / ‘d / might + verb 
If I learnt my vocabulary,     I’d get a good mark.
or the other way round: 
main clause + if-clause
I’d get a good mark    if I learnt my vocabulary

 

If-clauses in front position are more emphatic.
If-clauses in front position get a comma.
Function Hypothetical statements 

  • Possible action/result according to a less probable condition in the future
    We’d have enough money for a new car if you found a good job.
  • Fantasized result or action according to an unreal (untrue) condition in the present
    We’d buy a Rolls Royce if we were rich.
Curriculum  Lehrplan:

  • Type II in form 7 or  8
  • if I were you,

Lehrbuch:

  • previously done:
  • past tense 
  • if-clause type I
Difficulties 1. form:

  • if – played, – conditional I
  • if – unless

2. function

  • Possible action/result according to a less probable condition in the future
  • Fantasized result or action according to an unreal (untrue) condition in the present: “virtual reality”
  • no time indicated by past tense = today or tomorrow

3. interlingual interferences

  • No conditional tense in if-clauses
  • if vs. when
  • unless

4. other difficulties

  • ‘were’ instead of ‘was’ (rest of old conjunctive)
  • position of the if-clause
Situations
  • dreams and nightmares
  • mock examinations: testing a person
  • exaggerated timidity (But if the bridge fell down….)
  • reproaches

Type III

Form

Type III:
if-clause 
+ main clause 
If / Unless / If …….not + past perfect, + conditional II
 If I had + -ed or 3rd form,  + should / would/ could / might + have + verb+ed or   3rd form
If I had learnt my vocabulary,    I would have got a good mark.
or the other way round:  .
main clause + if-clause
should / would/ could / might + have + verb -ed or 3rd form    if I had + -ed or 3rd form 
I would have got a good mark    if I had learnt my vocabulary

 

Function If- clause:       unreal condition: the condition can’t be fulfilled any longer, because it should have happened in the past, but didn’t.
main clause:  the consequence can’t take place any more, because the condition couldn’t be fulfilled.If I had learnt more (but I didn’t  learn=unreal condition), I would have got a better mark. (So I didn’t get a better mark= impossible  consequence)
or the other way round:
I would have got a better mark (So I didn’t get a better mark= impossible consequence)if I had learnt more (but I didn’t  learn=unreal condition)
Curriculum  Lehrplan:
form 9 + 10 (repetition)Lehrbuch: 
Type I and II in form 7 and 8 
if vs. when 
Difficulties 1. interlingual interferences No conditional tense in if-clauses 
if vs. when 
unless 

2. other difficulties 

position of the if-clause 

Situations
  • dreams and nightmares about the past
  • castles in the air in the past
  • reproaches
  • self-blaming 

Tipe Wish

 Wish dalam Bahasa Inggris mempunyai beberapa arti dan makna. Di bawah ini akan kami jelaskan secara terperinci tentang jenis-jenis makna dan arti dari “wish”. Semoga penjelasan di bawah ini dapat membantu Anda dalam menggunakan kata “wish” secara baik dan tepat.

Kata wish sama artinya dengan ekspresi “would like”:

  • wish I had a big house = I would like to have a big house.
  • wish I had been there = I would like to have been there.
  • wish you would stop talking = I would like you to stop talking.
  • wish to see the manager = I would like to see the manager.
  • wish you a Merry Christmas = I would like you to have a Merry Christmas.

Fungsi utama dari kata “wish” adalah untuk mengekspresikan penyesalan.

  • I wish (that) I weren’t here now.
  • wish (that) I didn’t have to go to school tomorrow.
  • wish (that) I had studied harder when I was at school.

Tenses yang mengikuti wish sama dengan second dan third conditionals. Kata that dapat dihilangkan dalam percakapan tidak resni.

Ekspresi wish … would digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang keinginan agar orang lain melakukan sesuatu:

  • wish you would tidy your room.
  • wish you wouldn’t always come home so late.

Dalam situasi tidak resmi, wish + (object) + infinitive dapat digunakan seperti pemakaian kata “want”:

  • wish to speak to the director.
  • Do you wish me to serve refreshments, sir?
  • Wish is also used in some fixed expressions:
  • I/we wish you a Merry Christmas (and a Happy New Year).
  • I/we wish you well/all the best.

source : http://toenkzndry.wordpress.com/2011/11/07/121/ http://2easy4share.blogspot.com/2011/11/if-clause-dan-wish.html

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