Subject and Verb Agreement

Subject-Verb Agreement

Rule (ketentuan) yang paling penting dalam bahasa Inggris adalah bahwa antara subject dengan verb harus in agreement. Artinya, jika subject-nya singular maka verb-nya juga harus singular. Sebaliknya, jika subject-nya plural maka verb-nya juga harus plural.

1. Singular subject – singular verb

Yang dimaksud dengan singular subject adalah subject pronoun he, she, dan it, atau nouns yang dapat digantikan dengan he, she atau it; Sedangkan yang dimaksud dengan singular verbs adalah verb1+es/s,is/was, serta verb phrase seperti: is/was + verb-ing/verb3has +verb3, has been verb-ing dan has been verb3.

Pola-pola singular subject-singular verb disajikan pada tabel berikut:

Singular subject Singular verb Tenses
1
He/She/it
verb1 + es/s
simple present
2
He/She/it
is + verb-ing
present continuous
3
He/She/it
was + verb-ing
past continuous
4
He/She/it
has + verb3
present perfect
5
He/She/it
has + been + verb-ing
present perfect continuous
6
He/She/it
is going to + verb1
simple future
7
He/She/It
is going to + be verb-ing
future continuous
8
He/She/it
was going to + verb1
past future
9
He/She/It
was going to + be verb-ing
past future continuous

Jika kalimatnya tidak menggunakan verb, kita gunakan to be :

Singular subject Singular verb Tenses
10
He/She/it
is
simple present
11
He/She/it
is + being
present continuous
12
He/She/it
was
simple past
13
He/She/it
was + being
past continuous
14
He/She/It
has been
present perfect
10
He/She/it
has + been + being
present perfect continuous
16
He/She/it
is going to + be
simple future
17
He/She/it
is going to + be being
future continuous
18
He/She/it
was going to + be
past future
19
He/She/it
was going to + be being
past future continuous

2. Plural subject – plural verb

Yang dimaksud dengan plural subject adalah subject pronouns seperti I, we, you, they, dan semua plural nouns. Sedangkan yang dimaksud dengan plural verbs adalah verbs dan verb phrase selain singular verbs di atas.

Pola-pola plural subject-plural verb disajikan pada tabel berikut:

Plural subject Plural verb Tense
1
I/we/you/they
verb1
simple present
2
I/we/you/they
am/are + verb-ing
present continuous
3
I/we/you/they
was/were + verb-ing
past continuous
4
I/we/you/they
have+ verb3
present perfect
5
I/we/you/they
have + been + verb-ing
present perfect continuous
6
I/we/you/they
am/are going to + verb1
simple future
7
I/we/you/they
am/are going to + be verb-ing
future continuous
8
I/we/you/they
was/were going to + verb1
past future
9
I/we/you/they
was/were going to + be verb-ing
past future continuous

Jika kalimatnya tidak menggunakan verb (kalimat nominal), maka digunakan to be :

Pluralsubject Plural verb Tense
10
I/we/you/they
am/are
simple present
11
I/we/you/they
am/are + being
present continuous
12
I/we/you/they
was/were
simple past
13
I/we/you/they
was/were + being
past continuous
14
I/we/you/they
have been
present perfect
10
I/we/you/they
have + been + being
present perfect continuous
16
I/we/you/they
am/are going to + be
simple future
17
I/we/you/they
am/are going to + be being
future continuous
18 I/we/you/they
was/were going to + be
past future
19 I/we/you/they
was/were going to + be being
past future continuous

Contoh:

Singular subject-singular verb Plural subject-plural verb
1
She dances
They dance
2
She is dancing
They are dancing
3
She was dancing
They were dancing
4
She has danced
They have danced
5
She has been dancing
They have been dancing
6
She is going to dance
They are going to dance
7
She is going to be dancing
They are going to be dancing
8
She was going to dance
They were going to dance
9 She was going to be dancing They were going to be dancing
10
She is nice to me.
They are nice to me.
11
She is being nice to me.
They are being nice to me.
12
She was nice to me.
They were nice to me.
13
She was being nice to me.
They were being nice to me.
14
She has been nice to me.
They have been nice to me.
10
She has been being nice to me.
They have been being nice to me.
16
She is going to be nice to me.
They are going to be nice to me.
17
She is going to be being nice to me.
They are going to be being nice to me.
18
She was going to be nice to me.
They were going to be nice to me.
19
She was going to be being nice to me.
They were going to be being nice to me.

Bagaimana subject-verb agreement pada tensis lain yang tidak disebutkan di atas?

Bentuk verb atau verb phrase pada tensis-tensis yang tidak disebutkan di atas baik ketika subject-nya singular maupun plural adalah sama.

Contoh:

  1. The elevator worked very well yesterday. (Lift itu berfungsi dengan baik kemarin)
  2. The elevators worked very well yesterday. (Lift-lift itu berfungsi dengan baik kemarin).
  1. Andi had gone before Ani arrived. (Andi telah pergi sebelum Ani tiba).
  2. Andi and Amir had gone before Ani arrived. (Andi dan Amir telah pergi sebelum Ani tiba).
  1. My mother will go to Bali tomorrow. (Ibuku akan pergi ke Bali besok).
  2. My mother and my father will go to Bali tomorrow. (Ibuku dan ayahku akan pergi ke Bali besok).
  1. Jenny would have passed the test if she had studied well. (Jenny telah lulus ujian jika dia telah belajar dengan baik).
  2. Jenny and Julie would have passed the test if they had studied well. (Jenny dan Julie telah lulus ujian jika mereka telah belajar dengan baik).

Pada contoh-contoh di atas, kita lihat bahwa subject-nya langsung diikuti oleh verb. Selanjutnya, mari kita bahas subject-verb agreement ketika subject dipisahkan oleh prepositional phrase atau oleh ungkapan-ungkapan (expression).

A. Subject – verb agreement ketika dipisahkan oleh prepositional phrase

Jika antara subject dengan verb dipisahkan oleh prepositional phrase(2 atau lebih kata yang diawali oleh preposition), prepositional phraseini tidak berpengaruh terhadap verb. Yang perlu diperhatikan adalah apa subject kalimatnya. Jika subject-nya singular maka verb-nya juga harus singular, sedangkan jika subject-nya plural maka verb-nya juga harus plural.

Singular subject + (prepositional phrase) + singular verb
Plural subject + (prepositional phrase) + plural verb

Contoh:

  1. The study of languages is very interesting. (singular subject) (Mempelajari bahasa sangat menarik)
  2. Several theories on this subject have been debated. (plural subject) (Beberapa teori tentang subyek ini telah diperdebatkan).
  3. The view of these disciplines varies from time to time. (singular subject) (Kajian tentang disiplin ilmu ini berubah-ubah dari waktu ke waktu)
  4. The danger of forest fires is not to be taken seriously. (singular subject) (Bahaya kebakaran hutan tidak ditangani secara serius)
  5. The effects of that crime are likely to be devastating. (plural subject) (Pengaruh kejahatan mungkin menghawatirkan)
  6. The fear of rape and robbery has caused many people to flee the cities. (singular subject). (Ketakutan terhadap pemerkosaan dan perampokan telah menyebabkan banyak orang meninggalkan kota-kota besar).
  7. The boys in the room are studying (plural subject). (Anak-anak di dalam kamar sedang belajar).

B. Subject – verb agreement ketika dipisahkan oleh together with, along with, as well as

Selain prepositional phrase di atas, ekspresi-ekspresi seperti together with, along with, accompanied by, dan as well as, juga tidak berpengaruh terhadap verb.

together with
along with
accompanied by
as well as
(bersama-sama dengan)
(bersama sama dengan)
(ditemani oleh)
(begitu juga, dan)

Contoh:

  1. The actressalong with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight. (Artis itu, bersama-sama dengan manager dan beberapa temannya, akan pergi ke pesta malam ini).
  2. Mr. Julianto, accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight. (Pak Julianto, ditemani oleh istri dan anak-anaknya, akan tiba malam ini).
  3. My wife as well as I is a volleyball player. (Istri saya begitu juga saya adalah seorang pemain bola volley).

Penggunaan together with, along with, accompanied by, dan as well as, dalam pola seperti ini hanya menambahkan informasi tambahan. Jika ekspresi tersebut dihilangkan, makna inti dari kalimat tersebut tidak berubah, yaitu:

  1. The actress is going to a party tonight.
  2. Mr. Julianto is arriving tonight.
  3. My wife is a volleyball player.

Sebaliknya, jika conjunction ‘and digunakan untuk menggantikan ekspresi-ekspresi di atas, maka verb-nya berubah menjadi plural.

Contoh:

  1. The actress and her manager are going to a party tonight.
  2. Mr. Julinto and his wife and children are arriving tonight.
  3. My wife and are volleyball players. (Istri saya dan saya adalah pemain-pemain bola volley).

source : http://swarabhaskara.com/parts-of-speech/subject-verb-agreement-part-1/

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